Monday, May 11, 2009

History Of Architectural Lighting Part 2


Flame was used in ancient history in mankind, first was burning branches was used then special wood to get long lasting light and artificially aesthetic and lead to the use of flammable material. And the development of flame had changed the artificial light widely. The invention of oil lamp and candle, made man realized how small and compact source of light could be.

The oil lamp represented the highest form of lighting engineering progress for a very long time. Then the lamp were developed into sorts of magnificent chandeliers and sconces and available in a wide variety of styles but the flame, and its luminous power remained unchanged.
The development of oil lamp lead to some inventions such as the lenses, argand lamps and finally the invention of new light sources

The invention of gas lighting was the basic of modern light source. Gas lighting was demonstrated in a series of pilot projects such as a lecture hall in Löwen lit by Jan Pieter Minckellaer and a factory, a private home and even an automobile lit by the English engineer William Murdoch. This new light source achieved as yet unknown illuminance levels due to the high cost and manufacture problems.

Then incandescent gas light was doomed to go the way of most lighting discoveries that were fated to be overtaken by new light. The needs to have more efficient lighting source led to scientific research of the electric lamp in 19th century, it showed up and embarked on its career in its brightest form. The beginning of modern light sources. The Moore Lamps was used for advertising purposes and in architectural spaces as contour lighting. And mercury lamp was also used due to its good luminous efficacy.

After hundreds of years, artificial lighting changed dramatically and basic lamps were developed to the standard lamps as we use today. The artificial lighting is used in interior and exterior space for artistic and safety purposes. New studies in lighting specialist emerged to provide standard form of lighting, psychological effects of lighting and for guideline lighting in general.

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